Depending on the audit and the users’ needs, assurance can be communicated in two ways:

  • Through opinions and conclusions which explicitly convey the level of assurance. This applies to all attestation engagements and certain direct reporting engagements.
  • In other forms. In some direct reporting engagements the auditor does not give an explicit statement of assurance on the subject matter. In such cases the auditor provides the users with the necessary degree of confidence by explicitly explaining how findings, criteria and conclusions were developed in a balanced and reasoned manner, and why the combinations of findings and criteria result in a certain overall conclusion or recommendation.

INTOSAI ref. Fundamental Principles of Public-Sector Auditing(pdf) (ISSAI-100).
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