The actors at the micro-level are organisations of different kinds, such as companies, schools, medical centers, associations and public agencies.

A key characteristics of these actors is their specialisation. Each actor repetitively and efficiently performs a (small) number of sequential or parallel tasks.

Companies moreover mutually compete, develop new products and services, improve their efficiency and innovate.

Both their operations and innovations involve an increasing number of information exchanges, for which content solutions and software applications have been created.

The paper on VAT Compliance in ERP systems illustrates how companies could efficiently deal with regulation changes in their markets in the case where those regulations are provided as systematized knowledge commons.


For profit and non-profit private sector organisations have become an important sector of society.

For multilingual (24 languages) practical information and online government services for companies (looking for business in another EU country) see the business branch of (provided jointly by the European Commission and national authorities in 24 languages).

Other Organisations